Why and How to Make Your Own Pectin

Last year I made several batches of jam without using pectin.  It involves  boiling the jam quite a bit to thicken it, and adding lemon peel to produce a natural pectin.  The jam turned out pretty well, but the kids weren’t so appreciative of the bits of lemon peel in the jam, and the actual process of boiling down fruit does remove quite a bit of the original nutrients.  I could have just used commercial pectin.  But I didn’t want to.

Why would I want to avoid pectin?  It’s just from apples or oranges, right?  Yes… and no.  You can’t just sqeeze an apple to get the pectin out.   There is quite a bit of processing that goes into the production of commercial pectin.

Wikipedia explains:

The main raw-materials for pectin production are dried citrus peel or apple pomace, both by-products of juice production. Pomace from sugar-beet is also used to a small extent.

From these materials, pectin is extracted by adding hot dilute acid at pH-values from 1.5 – 3.5. During several hours of extraction, the protopectin loses some of its branching and chain-length and goes into solution. After filtering, the extract is concentrated in vacuum and the pectin then precipitated by adding ethanol or isopropanol. An old technique of precipitating pectin with aluminium salts is no longer used (apart from alcohols and polyvalent cations; pectin also precipitates with proteins and detergents).

Alcohol-precipitated pectin is then separated, washed and dried. Treating the initial pectin with dilute acid leads to low-esterified pectins. When this process includes ammonium hydroxide, amidated pectins are obtained. After drying and milling, pectin is usually standardised with sugar and sometimes calcium-salts or organic acids to have optimum performance in a particular application.[9]

Since one of my primary reasons for making my own jam in the first place is to avoid processed food, why am I adding a highly-processed product to my minimally-processed jam?  Good question.  I also haven’t been able to figure out where commercial pectin is produced, yet.  I have my suspicions that it isn’t local.

So…. I googled how to make my own pectin.  Naturally, it involves more effort than buying it from the store.  But just like most things, it isn’t hard, it just involves a little bit of time.  You can make a large amount, however, and can it so you don’t need to make it very often.  You can also freeze it.

How to make pectin:

I used crab apples to make my pectin.  They are extremely tart, which means they have a lot of pectin.  You can also use green (unripe) apples, and you can make it from citrus fruits too.  You want to keep the peels on and cores in the apples because much of the pectin is in the peel and core.  So, simply wash and quarter about 18 crab apples (or 8 regular, green, unripe apples).  Cores and all.  You can remove the apple seeds if desired.  Place them in a large pot with 4 cups of water and 2 Tbsp. of lemon juice.  Bring to a boil and simmer for 45 minutes or until reduced to about half.  Strain through cheese cloth and boil for another 20 minutes.  Pour into sterilized jars and seal them.  Boil them in a hot bath for 10 minutes to properly preserve them.  Store in your jam cupboard.

How to use the pectin

This part is tricky.  Because you don’t know the concentration of pectin in your apples, you can’t just throw in a particular amount and expect it to work.  For a batch of jam (6 cups of fruit) I’d start with a half cup of pectin.  Prepare your fruit and bring to a boil.  Boil for 1 minute.  Remove from heat.  Add sugar or honey and stir for a minute.  Add pectin and stir well for another minute.

Pick Your Own explains how to tell if your jam will set:

As you make the first batch, and are ready to fill the jars; first remove a spoonful of the jam, and hold an ice cube against the bottom of the spoon to cool the jam. If the spoonful sets to your liking, you can fill the jars, seal them and process them in the water bath canner.  If the spoonful does not set, add another cup of sugar, 1/4 cup of lemon juice and more of your pectin, bring to a full boil for 1 minute, and test again! Then do the pectin test.

Tips:

For a complete, cooked jam recipe from Mother Earth News using homemade pectin click here.   For more information on pectin and making your own, click here.

Here is another recipe using homemade pectin.

I would love to hear your stories on the adventures of making your own pectin!  Success?  Failure?  Let’s hear it!

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This post has been linked to Frugal Days Sustainable Ways #34 and Farmer’s Daughter’s Homestead Link Up.

Plastic, Plastic Everywhere and None Of It Is Safe?

A recent study has come out indicating that not only are the plastics that contain BPA dangerous, but most plastics that do NOT contain BPA are just as dangerous, if not more so.  Emily Sohn states in an article from Discovery News:

It now looks like there are thousands of possible chemicals in all sorts of plastics that act just like BPA. Called endocrine disruptors, these chemicals falsely tell the body’s cells that the hormone estrogen is around, potentially causing all sorts of troubling developmental and reproductive consequences.

And not only are they potentially just as bad as BPA plastics, but they are, in some cases, worse. 

To be honest, I have been waiting for this study.  In order to remove the BPA from the product they need to replace it with “something else”, and the “something else” will be another chemical that is not as well researched as BPA.

What exactly is BPA? 

BPA is an organic compound used to make polycarbonate plastic. 

Wikipedia says:

Polycarbonate plastic, which is clear and nearly shatter-proof, is used to make a variety of common products including baby and water bottles, sports equipment, medical and dental devices, dental fillings and sealants, CDs and DVDs, household electronics, and eyeglass lenses.[5]

BPA is also used as a lining in almost all food and drink cans.  It is used in copy paper and thermal paper including store reciepts.  It is also used for lining water pipes. 

Lots of people are choosing BPA-free options for many of these items including baby bottles, drinking water bottles, and BPA-free cans.  Many companies producing plastic items are advertising them as BPA-free and Safe.  And they are selling.  But what are these plastics made from?  And are they, too, leaching chemicals into our food and beverages?

Because of its shape and size, BPA manages to fit into the receptors in our bodies that recognize estrogen, kind of like a counterfeit key fitting into a loose lock. Estrogen is a key hormone in the development of young bodies and reproductive systems, which is why the chemical has been banished from baby products in many places. But if BPA can fool estrogen receptors so easily, scientists have long suspected that many other chemicals probably do the same thing. – Discovery News

The study tested plastic food and beverage containers, plastic wrap, plastic bags and so on.  They were exposed to microwaves, boiling water, and UV light, which is typical of normal use.  More than 90% of the products leached estrogenic chemicals BEFORE being subjected to heat.  When stressed with heat, ALMOST ALL of them leached estrogenic chemicals, and some of them leached MORE than the BPA plastics did. 

It will be interesting to see the follow up studies that will come.  The lesson we can take from this is to make sure that the alternative we choose has been well-tested and proven safe before we make the switch.

What can we trust?  What can we do?

  • Stainless steel and glass containers do not leach. 
  • Choose glass baby bottles and silicone or rubber nipples over plastic.
  • Use stainless or glass water bottles instead of plastic. 
  • Store oil, liquid or food that will be heated in glass or stainless containers rather than plastic. 
  • Choose fresh food over canned food. 
  • Choose fresh water or juice over canned beverages. 
  • Wash your hands after handling receipt paper and before eating anything. 
  • Don’t let you children chew on plastic chew toys. 
  • Send your children to school with old stainless steel cutlery over plastic cutlery.
  • Don’t serve beverages in plastic cups. 
  • Recognise that disposable plastic is only a convenience and that there are lots of better solutions to disposable ware.    

Plastic is everywhere, and we can’t entirely eliminate it from our lives.  Choosing to eliminate it from your food storage will decrease your exposure dramatically.  Fresh food that has not been in contact with plastic is your best choice. 

There are many other reasons to cut back on plastic use.  Plastic leaves behind a huge carbon footprint when being created.  It uses up valuable natural resources.  It fills up our landfills and oceans, causing injury and death to wildlife.  And now we are learning it could be affecting our health in very negative ways. 

Let’s choose alternatives to plastic whenever possible.  These changes just might save our lives.

This post has been linked to The Prairie Homesteader’s Homestead Barn Hop #50, Whole New Mom’s Traditional Tuesdays Frugally Sustainable’s Frugal Days, Sustainable Ways, I Thought I Knew Mama’s Green and Natural Link Up, Common Sense Homesteading’s Living Well Blog Hop #30 and Real Food Forager’s Fat Tuesday.

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Ways To Reduce BPA Levels In Our Diet